Gigaimages / virtual microscope


Illuviation and Hydromorphy

Bt1 Horizon from a Luvisol with incipient hydromorphism. Thin section Fdo33-3.


Medium/high magnifications
Medium/high magnifications


Micromorphologic features

After browsing these images you should have found, at least, the following characteristics (image on the left with polarizer only and the one on the right with crossed nicols).



Imperfections of these thin sections

Obtaining thin sections from such a heterogeneous material (the soil), is a very complex and arduos task; thus, microscopic preparations usually include some imperfections, just as in the examples below, that must be recognized so that they are not confused with soil features.


The anisotropy of the inclusion resin in this thin section is unusually intense, making difficult the recognition of some pores, thus, I have touched up the images in some cases.


Soil data

The profile

The landscape

General features

Morphology, physical and chemical analysis

Micromorphologic images: Hor Ap     Hor E     Hor Bt1     Hor Bt2     Hor Bt3      Comparative study


NOTE. The hydromorphy of this profile is not intense enough for appearing neither in the horizon nor the soil denominations (it is only visible using the microscope, not in the field).


This soil was studied by Fernando Santos Francés in his PhD Thesis "Estudio geológico y edafológico del sector Montiel-Alcaraz-Bienservida (Ciudad Real-Albacete)"