Gigaimages / virtual microscope


Horizon with Fe nodules.


Profile 2
Profile 1
Low/medium magnifications
Medium/high magnifications


Micromorphological features

Peculiar thin layers characterized by the presence of plenty iron oxide nodules: goethite (yellow) and haematites (red). Generally, the internal composition is as follows, thin alternating layers of goethite and haematites with an undifferentiated nucleus of haematites.


Soil data

We address two palaeosols from the Upper Aptense (Middle Cretaceous) located in Cazorla Mountains (JaƩn), more specifically, in "El Cerro de los Perdigones" (Profile 1) and in "Los Rasos" (Profile 2). The climate circumstances at the time of the formation were very different from the current ones (warm and wet tropical weather).

Analytical data



Source. "Micromorphological Characteristic and origin of soils formed in the Upper Aptense (Middle Cretaceous) in the Cazorla Mountains, Jaen (Spain)". J Fernandez, J Aguilar y JA Sanchez-Garrido. Soil Micromorphology:  A Basic and Applied Science. Ed LA Douglas. Developments in Soil Science. Elsevier. Amsterdam